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The Jews from Galati - Hundreds of great values

  • OVID.S. CROHMALNICEANU (Moise Cohn, b. 1921-d. 2000, Berlin)
  • BARBU NEMTEANU (Benjamin Deutsch, 1887-1919)
  • RADU LUPAN (Raymond Leibovici)
  • IULIA SOARE (Lilly Sonnenfeld)


    Poet and dramatic columnist, he was born in 1939, in Galati (he died in 1999, in Israel). He graduated the Faculty of Philology of the Bucharest University, department of literature and literary critic. He was secretary-general of the Galati Theatre. He immigrated, in 1973, in Israel; he was editor and secretary-general for "Viata noastra", "Revista mea" (editor-in-chief), "Tribuna magazin", where he wrote chronicles, literary critic. Anthologies: "Sunete ebraice" and "La marginea cerului". In 1997, in Bucharest, his verse volume "Padurea de aer" is published at the "Eminescu" publishing house. He was member of the Association of Romanian-language Israeli Writers. "In Sebastian Costin's works, the musicality seems so natural and all-over present, thus, if you attentively listen to his lyrics, you will discover dozen of song-like verses or stanzas…" (Al. Mirodan).



    Israeli, he was born in Galati. He published studies about the Jewish Enlightenment movement, Haskala, about Iulius Barasch. We also mention the study "Curentul reformist in viata religioasa evreiasca din Romania (1857-1921) - de la fondarea Comunitatii Templului Coral pana la alegerea Rabinului dr. I Niemirower ca Prim Rabin al Comunitatii Evreilor din Bucuresti". He received the "Meir Rudich" award of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.


    OVID.S. CROHMALNICEANU (Moise Cohn, b. 1921-d. 2000, Berlin)

    He was born in Galati, where he finished his lyceum studies. Between 1944-1947 - polytechnic studies in Bucharest. 1947-1951 - editor at "Contemporanul"; 1951-1953 - he works at the Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House, at "Viata Romaneasca", "Gazeta literara", etc. In 1944, he makes his debut in "Ecoul". Works: "Cronici si articole", "Cronici literare", "Amintiri deghizate", "Despre originalitate", "Istorii insolite", "Literatura romana si expresionismul", "Literatura romana intre cele doua razboaie mondiale" (3 volumes). Comparative micro-monographic works: Liviu Rebreanu, Lucian Blaga, Tudor Arghezi, etc. In 1992, he moves to Berlin. He wrote, together with Klaus Heitmann, "Cercul Literar de la Sibiu si influenta catalitica a culturii germane".



    Poet, pianist and composer, she was born in 1924 in Galati. Before the events that took place in December 1989, she settled herself in New York. A complex personality, "… passionate, drinking up the universe with her eyes, with her lips…" She attended the Conservator for Dramatic Arts and the Painting School, studying with M. H. Maxy. Works: "Dialogul vantului cu marea", "Sa ne facem daruri", "Marea conjugare", "Recviem", "Confidente fictive" (prose), plays for puppet shows, numerous translations from the universal literature, musical compositions, book illustrations, etc. In 1984, she visited Israel.



    He was born in Galati, in 1896 (he died in Bucharest, in 1982); he is the father of poet Nina Cassian. He was a skilled translator from the universal literature: Goethe, Heine, Brecht, Alfred Margul Sperber, Jan Neruda, etc. He was decorated for bravery in the Great War with second class order "Barbatie si credinta".


    BARBU NEMTEANU (Benjamin Deutsch, 1887-1919)

    "With thousands of silver lips, / The Danube smiles in the sun; / The fishermen swing in the wind/ Like snowbirds".

    "The poetry kissed in the cradle this wonderful child and hung on his forehead the big and sacred stigma" (A. Axelrad); a poet of the lyric moods - "…in a gentle breeze of melancholy" -, he was born in "Galati, terrible city of tradesmen! / In you the poet sits like in Sodom" (a poem entitled "Galati" and dedicated to Const. Graur). He contributes to "Semanatorul", "Viata noua", "Convorbiri critice". He was the head of the Galati magazine "Pagini libere". He translated from Heine (Melodii ebraice), V. Hugo, Baudelaire, Lessing, Lenau, etc. He was a "gracious minstrel" (E. Lovinescu). Works: "Stropi de soare", "Poezii alese (translations), "Povestea unei idile", "Comori straine" (lyrics), "Antologie" (with a preface written by Mihail Dragomirescu) etc. "Hurried passer-by in this world, his name will remain a constant in our literature" (Mihail Dragomirescu).


    RADU LUPAN (Raymond Leibovici)

    He was born in Galati, in 1920. At the beginning of 1950s, he was editor with "Contemporanul", and then at E.S.P.L.A. and at the Writers Union. He was a prolific translator from English and American authors ("Viziuni americane"): Hemingway, Faulkner, Th. Wilder, Galsworthy, Gr. Green, and James Joyce. Substantial micro-monographs: G. B. Shaw and Hemingway. A novel: "Razboiul ascuns".



    Prose and drama writer, he was born in 1929, in Galati. He appears in the memoirs of Radu Cosasu. In 1960, he wrote, together with Stefan Iures, the comedy "O luna de confort". "Dolingher's work-of-art is «My father, the cannibal»" (Al. Mirodan).



    He was born in 1937, in Galati. Eminent pianist, he settled in Switzerland; he is a piano professor at the Music Academy in Basle (Switzerland). He played with Menuhin (at the violin) and with Silvia Marcovici.



    Internationally renowned artist, he was born in Galati (he died in 1974). He was the son of a synagogue cantor. In 1923, he settles himself in the Holy Land. He studies - at the advice of Professor Boris Schatz - at the "Bezalel" Arts School in Jerusalem. In 1924, he opens an exhibition at "Migdal David": "Everything sings in lines and colors the beauty of life". The style and vision of his paintings "have something from the paintings of Marc Chagall, but also from other Jewish artists originating from the Eastern Europe, exponents of a very different expressionism" (Amelia Pavel). In 1948, he was appointed the first ambassador in Romania from the Israel State, Israel plenipotentiary minister. "Viata mea, arta mea" - autobiographic work, in which the life itself of this great master trembles.



    Linguist and philologist, he was born in 1919, in Galati. Doctor in philology with a dissertation about "H. Tiktin contribution to the Romanian linguistics development". Interest in grammar, lexicography, and the history of Romanian language. Editor, in 1971, of the "Pravila notarului Lucaci"" (1581).



    He was born in 1927, in Galati. He studies in Bucharest psychology and pedagogy. He makes his debut in "Victoria" newspaper. He works for "Luceafarul", "Gazeta literara". He published literature for young people and children, stories, short stories, but also materials about serious problems, documentary texts - "Vieti interzise", "Generatia 62", "Moartea unui savant: N. Iorga", "Strajerul marii" (drama) etc.



    Writer, journalist, television film director, he was born in 1936, in Galati. He made Alia. Engineer, with a degree in construction, navy officer, member of Association of Romanian-language Israeli Writers, member of the International Journalists Organization. Works: "Acces la esenta" (short story), "Zat" (novel) etc.



    Born on March 13th, 1926, in Galati. He took his diploma in law sciences at the University of Bucharest. For 25 years, he worked at the Cult Department. From 1986, he works at F.C.E.R. He is member in the Council for the National Minorities within the Romanian government' Department for the protection of national minorities and member of the Romanian Association for the Peace of Religions. He contributes with articles for "Revista Cultului Mozaic" - even when he was adviser of Chief Rabbi Dr. Moses Rosen - and for "Realitatea Evreiasca", the new series of "Revista Cultului Mozaic". Today, he is the secretary-general of the Romanian Jewish Community Federation.



    She was born in Galati. She founded her, together with her husband, the "Emuna" Library and Literary Club ("Credinta", 1930-1940). In 1950, she makes Alia. She is member of "B'nai B'rith". The "Haim and Sara Ianculovici" Foundation, created in 1977, with a reward bearing the same name, keeps alive the memory and the generosity of a great Jew and human being, Haim Ianculovici. The "Ianculovici" Fund - Itzhac Artzi used to say - is "a symbol of appreciation towards the creators of beauty". "The active motor of the Foundation is Shlomo David", the creator and editor of the volumes "Dorohoi - generations of Judaism and Zionism". Until now, on the part of our magazine, have received this award the editor-in-chief, deputy Dorel Dorian and Mrs. Evelin Fonea.



    He was actor at the T.E.S. from Iasi. During the Second World War, "he took part at the concerts, and literary and theatrical events organized in synagogues, regarding the commemoration of Salom Alehem, Salom As, Avram Goldfaden, etc." (Israel Bercovici)



    He settled in Galati. Between 1876-1878, he was the community president and of "Central Committee for the native Jews subsidiary". He obtained the naturalization in 1906. He was a convinced Zionist, believing in the rebuilding of the Jewish national state.


    IULIA SOARE (Lilly Sonnenfeld)

    She was born in 1920, in Galati (she died in 1971, in Bucharest). Realist prose writer, good observer of the traditional society; she offered an extremely conspicuous representation of the Jewish family life in her novel "Familia Calaff" (1956). She also published short story volumes "O plimbare la Baneasa" (1962) and "Varsta de bronz" (1969). Also, she is the author of a synthesis essay "Stendhal" (1957). She has numerous translations from Andre Gide, Georges Duhamel, and Roger Caillois.



    He was born in 1906, in Galati. He graduated the Faculty of Law in Bucharest. He published prose, literary critic, and scripts: "Marea calatorie"; "Niciodata nu va fi tacere"; "Paradisul"; "Calatoria spre miazanoapte" etc. In 1960, he makes Alia. He is - between 1974-1976 - president of Association of Romanian-language Israeli Writers. Comprehensive pages about this writer have been written in "Dictionar neconventional", by Al. Mirodan.



    Poet, columnist, translator, he was born in 1854, in Galati (he died in Bucharest). He was a convinced Zionist, even before Th. Herzi. He was the promoter of the Galati Israeli-Romanian School for girls (1899-1924) and of some cultural and philanthropic societies. He fluently spoke Hebrew, believing in its resurrection. During the war of completion, he volunteered as a male nurse in the "Speranta" Hospital in Galati.



    She was the nephew of Tiktin, "one of the most important painters in the history of Romanian painting, regarding her talent… She was Ov. S. Crohmalniceanu's mother-in-law…" (Radu Bogdan). She was born in Galati, in 1896 (died in 1981). She studied with Hermann Stuck, Lovis Corinth, Willy Jaeckel, Andre Derain. In 1971, a retrospective catalogue of her exhibitions was presented in Galati.



    Essays, novels, and chronicles author, he was born in Galati, in 1932. He attended the theoretical lyceum in Barlad. In 1955, he takes his degree in philology in Bucharest. Between 1955-1962, he is editor of "Gazeta literara", then department chief at "Luceafarul", and editor-in-chief of "Teatrul azi" magazine. He makes his debut in "Viata Romaneasca", in 1953. Works: "Problema intelectualului in opera lui Camil Petrescu" (essay); "Disparitia" (dramatic sketch); "Socrate, Diogene cainele"; "Teatrul ca metafora" (essay), "Teatrul" (1977) etc. He is laureate of the Romanian Academy (1978), Writers Union and Association of Writers Union from Bucharest (1973) prizes, and he received the U.N.I.T.E.R. award for the best Romanian play, "Repetabila scena a balconului" (1995), and an award from the Ministry of Culture.



    "One of the greatest pianists of the present days" (Iosif Sava). He was born in 1945, in Galati. After graduating the Popular School of Art in Brasov, he continues his studies in Bucharest with Professor Florica Muzicescu and Cella Delavrancea. In 1961, he leaves the country, with a scholarship, studying at the Moscow Conservatory. Rewards: 1966 - "Van Cliburn"; 1967 - "George Enescu"; 1969 - "Leeds". He is present in the big American cities, in renowned orchestras, with the music of Beethoven, Brahms, Mozart, and Schubert etc. Under the leadership of Zubin Mehta, he is the leading pianist with "Israel Philharmonic".



    He was born in Galati, in 1928, where he attended the lyceum. In 1952, he graduated the Faculty of Mechanic within the Polytechnic Institute in Bucharest and the Faculty of Mathematics - University of Bucharest. He studied economics (1958-1962), receiving his diploma in economic engineering. In 1942, he was sent to a death camp. Between 1951-1980 - he was associate professor at the Polytechnic Institute in Bucharest. He was author and co-author of a great number of works and innovations. He published, in co-operation with S. Weinberg, the study "Din trecutul Comunitatii Evreilor din Galati". From 1990, he is a member in the board of Jewish Community in Bucharest. He is the present leader of C.E.B.



    Musician, composer, "artist close to this country and to the ideals of the Romanian culture", he was remarked and defended by Mihail Jora and G. Enescu, who intervened in difficult times in favor of the eminent Philharmonic violinist. In 1953, he retired. From his works, we mention: "Poem tragic"; "Sase schite simfonice"; "Cinci piese pentru orchestra"; "In memoriam Anne Franck"; "Variatiuni simfonice"; "Poem simfonic"; "Cvartet de coarde"; "Cvintetul nr. 2"; "Improvizatie"; "Simfonia concertanta pentru orchestra de coarde" etc.



    He was a complex scholar, philosopher, and theatre critic (d. Feb. 1998). He studied philosophy, specialized in esthetics. He was preoccupied with the problems of the relationship between art and reality. In our magazine, he was present with comprehensive studies about Judaism and the link between Judaic philosophy and real life. He was member in the executive board of F.C.E.R.



    Critic and art historian, having "the cult for the books and the artistic beauty", he was born in Galati. He studied in his university years with eminent professors like Tudor Vianu, G. Oprescu, Mircea Florian, and George Calinescu. He passed his examination for a doctor's degree with Professor G. Oprescu as guide. Between 1948-1950 he was chief inspector with the Ministry of Arts. He was lecturer at the History of Art Department - "N. Grigorescu" Plastic Arts Institute. From his works: "Theodor Aman" (monograph, state reward, 1955); comprehensive monograph "Andreescu" (vol. 1-2; vol. 3-4 will follow); "Reverii lucide" (studies, essays); monograph "Georgeta Naparus"; "Meditatii incomode" (studies, essays) etc.



    Poet, born in 1936, in Galati, town where he also attended the lyceum. He graduated the Faculty of Philology, Pedagogic Institute. He makes his debut in "Viata noua", in Galati. Works: "Nici o tangenta la inima!"; "Armuri"; "Inmultirea cu unu"; "O cafea sub un cearcan" etc.



    Critic, he was born in 1929, in Galati; his father was Rabbi, doctor in Judaic studies. He graduated the Faculty of Pedagogy and Psychology in Bucharest. In 1957, he leaves the country. Works: "Intalnire la Kronstadt"; "Rahel", "Nu vom mai pleca la Silas", "Maria" etc. He received the W.Z.O. prize (World Zionist Organization) and he is member of honor of the "Romanian Writers Union".



    One of the concertmasters of the country' first orchestra, he was born in 1935, in Galati. "He was the Ionel Geanta's student at the Bucharest Conservatory". In 1985, he left for Israel. He is professor at the Music Academy in Jerusalem. "The critics appreciated his finesse, sensitivity and stylistic culture, the solidity of his techniques and the purity of his tones, the accuracy of his intonation, the liveliness of the sound colors, the rigor, the logic of his constructions, the verve of the discourse, the amplitude of his repertoire" (Iosif Sava).



    In 1941, in Galati there were 20 synagogues. The documents of that period report the existence here of craftsmen, organized in trades and professional societies, even from the 15 century. The census indicates the names of the craftsmen who supported the rise of some synagogue, and whose names and their crafts are linked with the names of the prayer houses and synagogues - created with their financial aid. The guilds had their statutes, their funds, and their prayer houses. Simultaneous with the Great Synagogue - mentioned in 1780 -, rebuilt in 1813, there also were: tailors, blacksmiths, porters, cab drivers and even a craftsmen synagogue (inaugurated in 1896), places most frequented by craftsmen. In this Jewish spiritual centers important rabbinical personalities have officiated: Jacob Margulies; I. M. Zalman; Der Barmdiker; Gottesmann; Schapira etc.




    The study of the documents attests that the first Galati cemetery - and the oldest - dates back from 1590-1595. In 1629, the second cemetery has been built. The tomb inscriptions made after 1800 represent also old testimonies about the Jewish occupations, the function and the role they played in the community evolution. In 1805, came into being the "Hevra Kedosa" Sacred Society that took care of the burring ceremonies for the deceased Jews.
    We just mention some Circles, Societies and Associations that contributed to the development of the community life and the integration of the Galati community in city' social-economical and local cultural life: 1826 - The Jewish tailors guild; 1868 - The society of the Israelite ladies; 1871 - Caritas Society; 1875 - The Israelite Craftsmen Society; 1879 - "Maimonides" Society (for aiding the members in case of illness); 1893 - "Junimea" (society of the white collars working in harbors); 1895 - House painters and dyers Association; 1897 - "Max Nordau" Cultural Society (with a great library); 1898 - "Fraterna" Society (of the tailors); 1898-1899 - "Nedivas-Nusim" Society ("popular canteen for needy families"; has functioned until 1907); 1900 - it is open the general Association for mutual help between the teachers in Israelite-Romanian schools, in case of illness or old-age (president of honor - Dr. S. Feldman); 1903 - "Progresul" Society; 1906 - "Baron de Hirsch" Society; 1909 - "Baron de Rotschild" Society; 1916 - "B'nei B'rith" Lodge etc.



    "The Galati Jews - hundreds of great values" is not an exaggeration. We regret the fact that the space doesn't allow us - this time again - to write a few words about each personality. We only mention few names that contributed to the prestige of the Galati community, and we ask forgiveness for the unavoidable omissions:

    - PROFESSORS: Piorkovski; M. Pinsker; Sylvia Schierer; Celia Herscovici; I. Augenstreich; Corneliu Kahana; A. Brociner; M. Davidoglu; Brad Segal (didactic activity, researches, writer) etc.

    - MUSICIANS: Ury Schmidt; Ruth Monthe; S. Blanck (cantor); Ghitla Mendel-Schapira (he accompanied Enescu at the piano) etc.

    - PAINTERS: Gh. Lazar; Lola Schmierer-Roth etc.

    - DOCTORS: Adolf Bleichman (surgeon); Iancu Feldstein (gynecologist at the Coltea Hospital); Sofia Tuchner (dentist); Idel David (surgeon); Hellman (surgeon); R. Tenenbaum; Fischer; Pedro Braunstein etc.

    - WRITERS, DIRECTORS AND CRITICS: Iona Atlas; I. G. Aurescu-Goldenberg; Isaac Schonberg; Teodor Caranfil (film critic); Conrad Bercovici; Israel Wechsler (novelist, translator); Camillio Baciu (historian, prose and drama writer); Solomon Weinberg (linguist), Adrian Lupu etc.

    - LAWYERS: I. Faibis; I. Klein; Samuel Mendelsohn-Mocanu; public prosecutor Abeles; Marco Barasch (in 1930, together with Gr. Trancu-Iasi, he founded "Romanian Association for social progress"); A. Zalman-Galati; M. I. Alterescu; Donat Ornstein etc. And not at last…

    - ENGINEERS, INDUSTRIALISTS AND BANKERS: Lupu Braunstein; C. Konzelman; Max Fischer; Osias Ausschnitt; Max Ausschnitt ("who offered his entire wealth in favor of the Romanian state"); I. Marcus; M. Weisbuch etc.



    "Galati was also a cradle of the Zionist movement in Romania. At some point in time, it was the most powerful Zionist center" (Leon Volovici). After 1800, here it was founded a Committee to aid the Jews immigrate easier. There were reunions of the "Chowewe Zion" Association, where the participants discussed the possibility of acquiring land in Palestine for immigrates. There were Zionist conferences and the Zionist Central Committee in Romania has been created - a unified leadership of Zionism. Zionist societies and circles have been founded - "Iubirea fraterna", "B'nei B'rith", "Theodor Herzl" circle etc. There were Zionist congresses (1907), Zionist conferences. From here, the first boat with 228 Jews left for Palestine. The Zionist press - in Romanian and Yiddish language -, which reported about the Zionist movement in the country ("Ahavat Zion", "Der Emigrant", "Steaua Sionului", "Menorah", "Magen David" etc), will be applauded by Theodor Herzl. We mention here a number of newspapers and magazines in Romanian and Yiddish language, have been published after 1800, reporting social-cultural events, pleading in favor of defending Jewish interests: "Pamanteanul" (1897); "Desteptarea" (1927); "Infratirea"; "Veghetorul" etc. Publications for children ("Haieled Haibri"), for young people ("Cugetul Evreu", "Glas Evreiesc"); "Curentul Nou"; "Sulem" etc.

    "The future of a nation lays in the hands of its teachers" (Scarlat Albrecht)

    We will only focus on the moments regarding the school development, the evolution of education in general. The historians set the year 1859 - "in the days of the chief magistrate Cantacuzino" -, when the first school of the Israelite Community has been established, with four primary classes. Special years: 1894 - two primary schools, one for girls and other for boys, have been founded; 1898 - a secondary commercial school has been created for the Galati community; 1919 - The "Jewish Community Lyceum" has been established, with school certificates being recognized etc. Around all of these schools, cultural and artistic centers have been established, and libraries, sports organizations and societies.



    Presidents and guardians who, over the time, led the community destiny: Marcu Thal; Iosef Flachs; I. B. Brociner (historian, author of "Chestiunea Israelitilor Romani"); Solomon Schwartz; I. Leibovici; Max Rauch; dr. S. Feldman; Pincus Herman; B. Gottesmann; dr. I. Bizamcer; Misu Herscovici; Barbu Boiangiu; Leon Iacobsohn; Faust Alfred etc. The composition of the community leadership today: Avram Vacs - president; H. Groper - secretary; J. Sincar - adviser; engineer Violeta Blumer; Salo Solomon - Temple president; Mircea Goldenberg; Sorin Blumer; I. Goldenberg; Elisabeta Aberman; Iulius Weiss; Adriana Goldenberg.



    We present, selectively, a number of eminent journalists, who founded not only the already mentioned newspapers, but who were also media men, defending the interests of the Jews, of the Judaism and of the humanity: Marcu Brociner; I. H. Botosanu; User Ancel Paves; Sigismund Carmellin (he founded "L'Echo Danubien"); Dov Beris Margulis; Lazar Phoebus, D. Alperin; Florin Dumitrache (Florin Z. Florin - editor with the "Realitatea Evreiasca", an active presence) etc.



    - 1927 - "Shalom Alechem" literary circle and library

    - 1924 - "Mizrachi" cultural circle ? "Ort" cultural society

    - 1923 - "The Jewish cultural league" ? "Judische Kleinkunst Buhne"

    - "Harfa" musical society ? "Emuna" library (animators Haim and Sara Ianculovici)

    - "Max Nordau" library (librarian - Zeilicovici)

    - Sports organizations: 1906 - "Macabi" Association; 1908 - "Speranta" and "Maghen David" Associations; 1910 - "Bar Kohba" Association; 1923 - "Haghibor" gymnastics society etc.



    In his "As a Jew" chart, Felix Aderca underlined: "We, the Jews, are - as always have been - bound… to the destiny of the Romanian land and nation…; nothing can root us out from this great union with the people within the country boundaries". Thus, in 1848, Mordenthal, local president of the Jews Committee, called the Galati Jews to support the revolution. Old documents speak of the heroic deeds and the sacrifices made by the local Jews during the 1877 War of independence, and not only. Leibu Vacs, from Dorobanti 15th regiment, the grandfather of the present community president, received the prince's diploma no. 1784, for "serving under the banner", and his father, Vacs Maier, received the "Avantul Tarii" distinction, for his service in the 1913 campaign and "Crucea comemorativa a rasboiului 1916-1918". At the initiative of guardianship - the president I. B. Brociner, (the brother of the colonel Mauriciu Brociner, "the first Jew officer in active service in the Romanian army") -, during the War of independence, the Jewish community "came to the rescue of the Romanian soldiers, wounded in battle", collecting money.

    - 128 Jews and heroes from Galati "died for their country". Testimony for that remains the Heroes Monument erected in the Jewish cemetery in Galati

    - Solo Weissenberg was decorated, in 1907, with "Coroana Romaniei", with knight rank, and with "Meritul Comercial si industrial clasa I" and for "offering the country… equipment and weapons for the army".

    - The Jewish general Eugen Bantea, historian, author of social history and military strategy studies, in which he spoke about the heroic deeds made by the Jews in Romania.



    Again, this time around - concise and selective, especially due to the lack of space - we come near another community, Galati, considered "the forth dimension in Romania…, (with) a well organized community" (Liviu Rotman). This mini-monograph of Galati - "Romania's main fluvial access route", important port on the river Danube, where the Jews have settled from very old times - doesn't have, as any other monograph published in our magazine, a comprehensive character. Old documents and archive sources retrospectively turn to good account and confirm the Jew population contribution, interfering in the local life, developing on different layers a sustained social-economic and cultural activity (on which we turned our attention, in general), thus contributing to the development and modernization of trades, education, and culture. Taking about the occupations of those days, two Scottish clerics visiting the Romanian lands in the 19th century, reported: "every Jew in Galati had his own occupation, not one of them was unemployed". Old tombstones, partially destroyed, documents grown pale with time, all attest the oldness of the Jewish population. After 1800, sepulchral stones, with partially professional engravings, will add to the historical data, both with references linked to the occupational structure, and with the cultural interests regarding the building of schools, kindergartens, organizing rite and cultural societies, considering the fact that the tombstone engravings illustrate the contribution of some of the personalities. Still, the Jewish community in Galati is documentary attested in 1846, by a Princely Charter, issued by prince Mihail Grigore Sturdza, which approved "(the Jews') request for the Hospital they founded there". A new modern period places now in the center of the attention Galati and the Jews contribution, as sons of their city. Secondary schools, with their curriculum similar with the ones used "in public schools", and with classes studying Hebrew language and culture contributed directly to this community development. On a visit in town, Iuliu Barasch (1815-1863) would make - in his "Itinerar in Cracovia, Galitia, Bucovina, Moldova si Muntenia in 1841-1842" - some estimates regarding the number of Jews - "the Israelite community is numerous". It is also interesting that the historian talked about the threats made by "those fanatic Greeks" who, "because of a kind of a commercial envy… and under the cover of religious fundamentalism", represented a danger for the Jews settled there. But still, the Jews - says this open-minded scholar - were supported "by a fair regime". Moses Schwarzfeld (1857-1943), historian and columnist, reminds the studies and document collections published by I. B. Brociner, founder of "The Romanian Israelites Society". His purpose was to bring the Romanian Jews together, promote their best interests, in order to rise and develop the intellectual and moral character of our race… based on charity, honor and patriotism…" ("Contributia evreilor din Romania la cultura si civilizatie").


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