From the great history of the Jews in Iasi
FROM THE GREAT HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN IASI
TYPOGRAPHERS, BOOKBINDERS, ANTIQUARIANS
Iasi seen by...
RABBIS, DAIANIMS, HAHAMS
DAVID SARAGA and IHIL SARAGA
HEIMANN (Hariton) TIKTIN
J. I. NIEMIROWER
MONEY DONATIONS TO THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY
GALLERY OF IMAGES WITH THE SYNAGOGUES IN IASI
FROM THE GREAT HISTORY OF THE JEWS IN IASI
Recently, the readers of "Realitatea Evreiasca" have been acquainted with our initiative of bringing to the attention of our contemporaries, Jews or non-Jews, the trajectory - of course, sinuous, complicated, but always impregnated with the moving sentiment of historical becoming - of the Jewish communities in Romania. There are vivid pages, sometimes intense, but not without tragic moments, but also telling for what someone can call a benefic integration of Jews from Diaspora within the destiny of the countries where they settled.
The first communities we've wrote about (Braila, Buzau) revealed unsuspected treasures that can be turn to good account today, on the memory level, but also on the level of a continuous creativity. In spite of the decrease in numbers and an increase in the age of the Jewish population (fugit irreparabile tempus!), the respective communities have many years ahead! They still have a saying in the political, economic, social, scientific and cultural life of their country. But within the diverse picture of the evolution of our communities, some of them have distinguished themselves and still are doing it today through an unexpected density of values, though wide intellectual resources, which have been put to work during the centuries, and they keep being vital today. It is the case with the communities in the cultural metropolis of Moldavia, Iasi, a city of so many halting places for the history of the Jews in the country and - at least for the legendary Goldfaden, but not only for him - for the history of the Jews in the world. Such a "gold mine" can't be spent in just two pages of our magazine.
For now, we went back to the older layers in the history of the community in Iasi, until the 19th century (it wasn't easy, because many institutional and human biographies go beyond the boundaries between the last and the present centuries). We took as a starting point of our investigation, the study realized by the scholar Wilhelm Schwarzfeld, "Invatati si scriitori evrei din Iasi. Din timpurile cele mai vechi pana in zilele noastre. Schita istorico-culturala" ("Anuar pentru Israeliti", 1890), cited in the anthology "De la Cilibi Moise la Paul Celan", realized by Ticu Goldstein, "Hasefer" publishing house, 1996). Having inherent lacunas, this text had to be corroborated with more recent contributions (mentioned in the bibliographic note below), to offer a more comprehensive picture about the value of the Jewish-Romanian patrimony in Iasi. Carrying on, for writing about the 20th century, within an ad-hoc sub-editorial office that will be established in Iasi, we intend to recreate the image of a history whose sources are, in practice, inexhaustible, through collecting documents, oral testimonies and other sources, offered by an especially active community, a prestigious part in the local excellent inter-ethnic relations.
The texts have been completed with I. Kara, "Contributii la Istoria obstii evreilor din Iasi" (1997); Manascu Cotter and Manes Leib. "6 secole de convietuire. Din istoria comunitatilor evreiesti din Romania" (1997); J. I. Niemirower, "Scrieri complete", vol. I, "Dizertatii si foiletoane" (1919); Adolf Stern, "Din viata unui evreu-roman" (1915); Hary Kuller, "Opt studii despre Istoria Evreilor din Romania" (1997); "Contributia evreilor din Romania la cultura si civilizatie" (1996).
"Even the poorest of the Jews made all the sacrifices to prepare their children for a better future". (N. IORGA - "In chestia evreiasca")
N. IORGA: "Today, the Jews represent a part of the intelligentsia of our period and they cannot, for any motive, be excluded from the life of the human society… The true scholars should spare no effort to defend, starting from now, the culture which represents a human patrimony. All the forces are necessary for this… And the «fascists from Iasi» should ask themselves what good things they have done to have the right to negatively militate against someone, engaging the hole nation in their actions?". ("Despre problema evreiasca" - published in "Egalitatea", 1923)
"The existence of a rabbinical house in Iasi, for many centuries, tells us about the presence of the Jews in the Moldavian capital from ancient times". (J. I. Niemirower)
In Iasi, there have been approximately 90 synagogues and prayer houses, in Sararie, the Street of Synagogues, C. Negri, Tutora, Socola, and Elena Doamna, bearing the name of some great families. We are mentioning the most important synagogues.
Sinagoga Mare (The Great Synagogue) on Cucu Street, it is very old, built in a late Baroque-style. The 1666 princely charter was underlining the buying of this place. Inaugurated under the pastor-ship of Natan Hanover, in 1670, this synagogue exists today in its pristine appearance, from 1762. It was restored after a fire that took place in 1822. Close to the synagogue a small museum of the community in Iasi is opened. Sinagoga Mare (The Great Synagogue) from Podu Ros, rebuilt in 1782 and 1821. In this place have been pastors, Rabbi Iehosua Hesil (1803-1811) and Zvolever Rav (1808-1837). It was restored in 1864. But it was demolished between 1803-1811. The "Beth-Iacob" Temple built by Iacob Neuschotz. Sinagoga Mare (The Great Synagogue) from Pacurari, with purchase documents issued in 1852; it functions from 1898.
TYPOGRAPHERS, BOOKBINDERS, ANTIQUARIANS
"Among the first Romanian editors we find the Saraga brothers from Iasi, who dared for the first time to print a 1 Leu-priced volume in 5,000-6,000 copies… From them, the Romanian books started to penetrate the masses…". (A. Axelrad)
AIZIC SARAGA (1770-1845). On the Bucsinescu lane, "one of the oldest streets in Iasi", there was the bookbindery of this old scholar. Buried in the old cemetery in Ciurchi (Iasi). The historiographer and document collector Theodor Codrescu was binding his books in his bookbindery: "Here I give for binding some books, and after that the sons of the old man, David and Ihil, continued many years after the creation of the «Buciumul Roman» typography in 1850… Today's librarians are the sons of Ihil Saraga".
DAVID SARAGA (1816-1886) and IHIL SARAGA (1819-1879).
SAMOIL SARAGA (1857-1906) and ELIAS SARAGA (1859-1939), the sons of Ihil Saraga, were librarians. They visited the fairs and market places to sell books on the popular literature. They initiated, in 1884, "Fratii Saraga" publishing house, which precedes the creation of "Biblioteca pentru toti" (The library for all). Someone can find warm memories about them in the pages written by the poet D. Anghel. They made donations towards the Romanian Academy and National Museum for Antiquities. They received the golden medal "Serviciul credincios" (1883), as "reward for their donations of documents, manuscripts and old coins, which they offered to the Romanian Academy and National Museum". In 1877, the library situated on Golia Street had many sections. Also members of the Saraga family: NATAN SARAGA (1860-1931), IANCU SARAGA (b. 1876).
In "Editura Librariei Scoalelor Fratii Saraga" have been published - among other works - "Povesti", "Amintiri din copilarie" and "Anecdote" by I. Creanga, Vlahuta, Eminescu, Xenopol, Bolintineanu, M. Canianu, "Poezii populare (Doine)" etc.
We also have testimonies from the correspondence between Iorga and Caragiale with Saraga brothers.
They initiated the well-known and appreciated "Colectiune de 1 leu" and "Biblioteca de 25 de bani".
"It is known that the main target of our collection - said Saraga - is to offer, except the contemporary literary productions, the works of some older writers, giving them to the readers with a nice price".
In the memory of the great personalities, they stamped medals - Stefan cel Mare, Al. I. Cuza, Mihai Eminescu, Theodor Codrescu, Vasile Alecsandri etc.
HERS GOLDNER, typographer, he established the "Hers Goldner" typography and he was a respected "community activist".
In 1882, has been elected the first committee of the "Association for Eretz Israel", reuniting circa 3,000 members. President: Karpel Lippe.
In 1899, there were Zionist organizations: "Mevaseret Tion", "Nahon Tion", "Ezrat Tion", "Bnot Tion", "Clubul sionist", and an association for young women.
F. LOVENTHAL - he published the first Hebrew-language newspaper, in 1855, "in the Jewish popular idiom", "Korot Haitim", "the first Yiddish newspaper in the world", followed by "Ehud Haitim", 1856, meant for popularizing the Judaic culture.
MARCU FELDMANN - "the first Moldavian Jew who wrote Romanian-language essays". He wrote in 1859 "Gazeta romana-evreiasca"; first editor with "Vocea Aparatorului", in Romanian-language, founded in 1872, which was later edited by Elias Schwarzfeld and Solm. Grosman, champions of "freedom, fraternity and patriotism".
I. B. BROCINER (1846-1918), he was historian, publicist. He left behind an important work: "Chestiunea israelitilor romani" (until 1848).
"Revista israelita" (1874) - in Romanian-language, focused on culture and promoting Judaic personalities. "Nae idise taitung" (1881) - in Yiddish-language, offering political information; "Der rumeiniser israelit" (1882) - with problems regarding Alia; "Der idiser folks fraind" (1887) - edited by M. Braunstein (Mebasan), with features and commentaries regarding the Jewish Isuv; "Di idise post" (1895) - in Yiddish-language, regarding the community life, events linked to Zionism, news; "Di Hofnung" (1896); "Der Weker" (1896) - in Yiddish-language, with a socialist orientation; "Lumina" (1896-1897) - features about the Jewish workers and the Jewish problem; "Der idiser gaist" (1898) - in Yiddish-language, with a Zionist orientation, preoccupied with the European and local anti-Semitism. Regarded as one of the most prodigious publications, edited by E. Rokeah: "Accuracy in style and language"; "Di idise tucunft" (1899) - in Yiddish-language, with problems regarding Zionism (only few editions); "Talpiot" (1898-1899) and "Iesrup" (1880) - in Yiddish-language, edited by E. Rokeah; "Propasirea" (1889, 1891) - publicist Max Caufman; in its pages, Karpel Lippe fights the assimilation trends. "Darabana" (1898) - edited by young people; "Rasaritul" (1899) - in Romanian-language; "Authorized organ of the Zionist", with social, political and cultural themes; "Ecoul tinerimii" (1885) - in Romanian-language.
He was born in Iasi, city where he lived until 1880, when he settled in Bucharest. His father, Beniamin Schwarzfeld (1822-1896) and M. Braunstein-Mebasan, Hebrew-language teacher, taught him Hebrew, French, Portuguese and German language. He attended the Faculty of Letters and Philosophy in Iasi. The exploration of the Iasi cemetery, together with M. Braunstein-Mebasan and N. Beldiceanu, would be reflected in numerous studies about the Jewish history and epigraphs in Romania. His early death, in 1894, will determine his brother, Moses Schwarzfeld (1857-1943), folklorist, historian and publicist, to publish his studies, still in manuscript. We pay attention to those "Amintiri pioase", written by Dr. J. I. Niemirower: "My sentiments - said the erudite Rabbi - go straight to the soul of Wilhelm Schwarzfeld, who erected a monument with his scientific-literary works. His important works, on history, epigraph and philology, are known enough… especially one work of his… «Instructiuni la evreii din Iasi»".
Dr. Karpel Lippe (1830-1915), was a Hyppocrate' disciple, "doctor for the poor Jews", "tireless fighter on the literary field, defender of the Jews, very talented and full of joy". He settled in Iasi in 1860, and he worked here for half a century. He was one of the founder of the "B'nai B'rith" subsidiary in Iasi. He opened, as senior president, the first Zionist Executive Congress in Vienna. He was a brilliant personality of the Romanian Judaism.
"Doctor Lippe was a true popular type in Iasi, the oldest practitioner among all the medics living then in Iasi. With his head pressed in his collar, with big glasses, with short and gray whiskers, you met him anywhere, traveling with a one-horse carriage, always in a hurry, nervous, agitated, grave, talking with himself and giving the impression he was looking for someone…" (Rudolf Sutu, "Iasii de odinioara", 1923).
He also played a special role in created the "Toynbee-Hall" cultural society. He was curator at the "Neuschotz orphanage", president of "Junimea" schools in Iasi, founder of the "Ohle Shem" readers' club.
Iasi seen by...
"The destiny wanted that Iasi - the tormented capital of Moldavia and the most important Jewish center in the country - to experience, with the start of the regeneration movement (The Zionism), the most thriving period of the Judaic spirituality in Romania".
"The gallery of the great Jewish personalities (in Iasi) is present in all the domains of activity, in culture, but also in art, science, and in crafts, such as commerce and industry".
RABBIS, DAIANIMS, HAHAMS
"The Rabbis, the Daianims, the Hahams and the scholars represented the so-called Jewish «nobility» (ichus)". (Wilhelm Schwarzfeld)
SALOMON BEN ARAVI (Arayo), the oldest Rabbi in Iasi, he professed medicine. He was born in Yemen; he came to Iasi in 1589, where he worked for 40 years. He studied Cabala. Josef S. Del Medigo, who lived in Iasi for 11 years, remembered him and estimated that he was "the first Rabbi-philosopher in this community"; PETAHIA BEN DAVID from Lida, at the beginning of 18th century, he was in Iasi (1706-1711); Hahambasia - the Great Rabbinate was established in the 18th century, strengthened by a princely charter. It was dissolved in Moldavia in 1834, leaving the way open for city Rabbis; The first official Rabbi - Hahambasa: BEZALEL HACOEN. In 1722, under Mihai Racovita, the Jews were accused of ritual killings in Onitcani and put to trial in Iasi; ISAC HACOEN - Hahambasa of Moldavia and Wallachia; NATAN HACOHEN (d. 1809). He had an important role in the building of the Great Synagogue; NATAN NATA HANOVER, Rabbi, author of the "Saare Zion" elegies, of the works "Safta berura" (one of the editions was published in 1843, at the typography of Gheorghe Asachi) and Even Mecula. There was a Rabbinate in Iasi between 1652-1670. He was killed in Poland, in the pogrom. He erected in Iasi, in 1657, in Targul Cucului, "the first stone-made synagogue in the Romanian countries"; MORDEHAI, the son of Mose Haim, excellent connoisseur of Cabala, with a moral-religious role; IOSEF IOSKE (d. 1807), connoisseur of Cabala, "a great and fair Rabbi"; ABRAHAM IEHOSUA HESIL - also known as Apter Ruf (1800); he wrote in Iasi "Ohev Israel", with spiritual percepts and "Torah Emeth"; IOSEF DAVID COHEN, also known as Zvolever, came to Iasi in 1800, experienced in Torah and Cabala, author of the cabalist work "Darke haamuna"; A. ROSEN; IOSEF MENAHEM LANELA from Litin (1837-1853), "the animator of the rabbinical studies in Iasi". He wrote rabbinical texts: "Birhat Iosef"; ARON MOSE TAUBES, a Rabbi in Iasi; 1837-1852; he wrote rabbinical texts, commentaries to the Talmud; SAMUEL SMELKE TAUBES - he was pastor in Iasi between 1852-1865 (d. 1865). He wrote Haiei olam"; IAACOV TAUBES - he was pastor between 1868-1890; SAE SORR (d. 1879), the author of the work "Kelil Tifereth".
Daianims-judges. Together with the Rabbis, they represented "the rabbinical tribunal". About them we have few information, only the tombstone inscriptions.
SAMUEL DOR - he was the oldest Daian (in inscriptions, it is marked the year 1824); HAIM IOSEF (inscription from 1841); HANOACH HENICH (inscription from 1842) - he passed sentences in religious processes; MENAHEM MENDIL.
Hahams - DAVID BEN MER (inscription from 1797).
"In the Phanariot period, the center of gravity of the Israelite community moved in Moldavia… When the Jewish communities grown bigger, the Iasi guild becoming the representative of all communities… the Rabbi was recognized as Hahambasa, meaning the great Rabbi for all the Jews living in Moldavia, having under his jurisdiction the co-religionists from Romanian country." (Paul Cernovodeanu).
In 1867 - 150 education centers with 2,918 students; Talmud-Torah from Podu Ros; 1860 - the inauguration of the first Israelite-Romanian school, with a speech by the great politician M. Kogalniceanu; the schools in Podu Ros and Pacurari, supported by B. L. ROKEAH and W. DULBERG, the PAKER and DUFF brothers etc; Between 1864-1866, "Junimea I" became "MORITZ SI BETTY WACHTEL" (important donators); In 1876, "Junimea II"; The school for girls within the "Reuniunea Femeilor Israelite" Society (1867), donation made by FANNY NEUSCHOTZ; In 1899, a commercial school, leaded by Rabbi Dr. NIEMIROWER and Dr. KARPEL LIPPE; "Cultura" society (1894, H. Tiktin was president for a period of time) established schools in the neighborhoods; The schoolmaster MORITZ SCHWARTZ, school inspector, Hebrew expert and talmudist. He edited schoolbooks (in Hebrew and Romanian languages), literary anthologies.
The Rabbi SOLOMON BEN ARAVI, he was the doctor of the Moldavian royal court; COEN (COHEN) - in 1656, he was the private doctor of Prince Vasile Lupu. "…he also had an important political role…". The missionary Marco Bandini mentions him; IOSEF CUNEYAN, (Kunian, Conian), of Sefardic rite, he died in Iasi, in 1732. He is mentioned in one occasion by N. Iorga; "IOSAP JIDOV DOFTOR", in the Barboiul slums in Iasi (1774) - he took care of the "cutting of the pustules… and of putting leeches" etc; NISIM, "the son of Boez from the Menase family in Rhodos" (d. 1825), of Sefardic rite; (lack of data) Dr. MARKSTEIN; Dr. PESACH, "surgeon and vaccinating physician"; Dr. KLAUBER; Dr. LANDESBERG; Dr. E. PLON; TAUSIG, "friend of the poor"; I. LEBBEL; Renowned doctors are: Dr. THEOFIL GLUK; Dr. FERDINAND MANDEL; Dr. EMANUEL FRENKEL, doctor at the Jewish hospital and Dr. FINKELSTEIN; Dr. SCHREIBER - in 1860, he was call to Bucharest as chief of the Anatomy Museum within the Faculty of Medicine. He contributed with medical magazines; Dr. ISAC SILBERWEIG, born in Russia, he settled in Iasi in 1858. Military doctor, he became Major. In 1867, primary doctor at "Israelite Hospital". In 1864, he is appointed secretary of the Israelite Union in Iasi; 1772 - the Israelite hospital; 1890 - the asylum for old people; 1878 - "the first society for the Israeli women in Iasi for helping the poor-stricken women lately confined".
DAVID SARAGA and IHIL SARAGA
David Saraga (1816-1886) and Ihil Saraga (1819-1879) opened on Ulita Mare in Iasi a bookbindery, an antiquarian and a library, born of their love for books. The second one was bookbinder at the royal court of Prince Mihail Sturdza, who appreciated his work as a scholar. "It is possible that the son of Aizic Saraga, Ihil, showed a special skill in this job which also necessitates taste, if we think about the fact that he was working, in 1840, at the royal court of Prince Mihail Sturdza, as bookbinder, arrived here with the help, we suppose, of Gheorghe Asaki…" (I. Massoff). Among "the clients of his bookbindery, kept also by the widow of Ihil Saraga" were I. Creanga, the priest I. Enachescu, schoolteachers etc.
HEIMANN (Hariton) TIKTIN
Heimann (Hariton) Tiktin (1850-1936) - in 1919, he became member of the Romanian Academy. "Some fifty years ago, in Iasi appeared a man hard to find in this world. Foreigner, Jew, from a rabbinical family, born in Silezia, he didn't come to the Moldavian capital… to make money. On the contrary, everything he had was ready to loose… What an honest, loyal, humble and good was this pilgrim… And, after years of hard work, the new regime threw him out become he didn't have Christian parents… his work doesn't allow us to forget him…" (N. IORGA).
J. I. NIEMIROWER
J. I. Niemirower (1872-1939), he was Rabbi and philosopher. Thanks to Niemirower "a new type of rabbinate has been created in the country…". He was born in Lemberg. He studied theology and philosophy in Berlin.
In 1884, "he comes to the Moldavian capital, where he continues his studies" (Dr. M. A. Halevy). In 1897, he becomes Rabbi in Iasi, and in 1912, Rabbi at the Coral Temple and then chief-Rabbi of all Jewish communities in Romania. His rabbinical service "divided the Jews from Iasi in two distinctive camps… the Modernists and the Traditionalists…". He described the evolution of the rabbinate in Iasi in seven periods of time, starting with the first half of the 16th century.
He was a supporter of the Zionism. His first concern in Iasi and then in Bucharest was - said M. Schwarzfeld - the Culture, first of all the expansion of the Judaic knowledge: "he was fecund… a master of the words… a God-gifted Orator, with an unvanquished eloquence".
Science, literature, arts
"And because at the base of any culture stands the first spelling book, we find here a Jewish trowel. The schoolteacher M. Schwartz published in 1864 the first spelling book and the first elementary arithmetic on modern education principles… they were introduced at once in the public schools in Moldavia… Through an internal order, the Committee of the School Inspectorate in Iasi approved, in those days, with great elegies, the Schwartz's books". (A. AXELRAD, "In slujba tarii si a culturii romanesti")
BENIAMIN SCHWARZFELD (1822-1896), the father of the journalists Moses and Wilhelm Schwarzfeld, of Dr. Elias Schwarzfeld, headmaster in the modern school for boys. He published Hebrew-language lyrics, translations and prose ("O calatorie in Bucovina), articles regarding the history of the Israelite-Romanian school; SAMUEL HERMANN (d. 1877). He was fluent in many foreign languages, he studied the philosophy of Spinoza, Kant and Buchner; the representatives of the enlightenment, M. E. FINKELSTEIN and B. FINKELSTEIN, with excellent knowledge of the Hebrew language; they established the first modern school in Iasi. They published verses in "Kochve Itchok", a magazine from Vienna; M. S. RABENER, professor, headmaster of many Israelite-Romanian schools in the country. He settled in Iasi. He published poetry and other literary productions, German and Hebrew-language grammars. He edited the "Talpiot" newspaper (1898-1899); ISRAEL ORNSTEIN (1831-1906), lampooner; M. S. GOLDBAUM, member in the school committee (1860-1863), poet and playwright; SOLOMON MENDIL MATTES; IACOM CHAIM KORN (d. 1874). He wrote in Hebrew and German-language: "Der Talmud vor Gericht" (1883); D. N. FRAENKEL - studies about Judaism published in "Rumanische Post" and "Revista Israelita" (1875), "Anuarul pentru Israeliti". He translated in Hebrew "Don Quijote de la Mancha", and he edited the "Neue judische Zeitung" newspaper; LEON MARGOSISCH, with literary works in various publications; COPEL BRIM (d. 1890), he was teacher, Hebrew specialist, mathematician, and philosopher; IULIUS HEILPERN - studies on physics sciences, astrology and painting; MOSES SCHWARZFELD (1857-1943) - born in Iasi, where he attended the lyceum. He made his debut in "Revista israelita", edited by Elias Schwarzfeld in Iasi (1874-1875), in "Analele Societatii Istorice Iuliu Barasch", "Fraternitatea", etc. He edited an "Anuar pentru israeliti", where he published studies. He also wrote historical-biographical research, critical studies. In 1890, he established "Egalitatea", where his studies - "Practica si apropourile lui Cilibi Moise", "Ochire asupra istoriei evreilor din Romania", "Dr. Iuliu Barasch", "Evreii in literatura populara romana si universala", "Evreii in literatura lor populara" - have been published. IOSEF B. BROCINER, from the remarkable family Brociner, was born in Iasi, in 1846; he is the author of some works regarding the history of the Romanian Jews, and about their emancipation rights. He used to say: "Has not been proved yet that there, where the Israelite is considered as the son of his country, he always seeks to be worthy of it?"; MARCO BROCINER, journalist, born in Iasi, in 1852; Colonel MAURICIU BROCINER - he fought in the war for independence; The "Ohle Shem" cultural society, "for cultivating the Judaic and Hebrew literature in any language", was established in 1878. Under the leadership of Dr. Karpel Lippe, S. Goldenthal and S. Rappaport. It is estimated that the society had 175 members. Its cultural activity united the Jewish elite in Iasi and "Harfa" philharmonic society. "The goal of the society is to promote the Hebrew language and culture", to "promote and develop the juridical sciences in every language… between co-religionists in Romania"… In 1898, it closes its doors for good.
ZEILING ITIC LEMES - he was part of the orchestra within the National Theater from Iasi, in 1846, performing musical folklore; H. LEMES - between 1892-1895; BERL LEMES CHAIM ISRAEL BERNSTEIN, he was born in 1875, and he was music professor at the Military Lyceum in Iasi, for 20 years; he composed romances, marches, music for theater.
VELVL ZBARJER-EHRENKRANZ (1824-1884), he came from Galitia, composer and interpreter in Yiddish and Hebrew. "He was appreciated in Iasi - he was, actually, a precursor of Avram Goldfaden…" (I. Kara). He published in the typography held by Hers Goldner a lyrics volume, "Cantec de sarbatoare" (Hazon la Moed); AVRAM GOLDFADEN (1840-1908) he established the base for the first professional theater in Yiddish language; "Wasn't here the cradle of the first Yiddish theater in the whole worldThe shadow of the great Goldfaden doesn't welcome us here, in Iasi, who in "La Pomul Verde" garden created the first Jewish stage?… (1865)" (Dr. Moses Rosen).
MONEY DONATIONS TO THE ROMANIAN ACADEMY
Personalities from Iasi made donations in this period to Romanian Academy. In "founding acts", it is mentioned an old donation act made by personalities of the Iasi community: Israel Haim Daniel, Leon and Albert Daniel.
Through his 1888 will, Iacob Neuschotz, from Iasi, donated to the Romanian Academy a fund with a 20,000 Lei value, as "rewards for authors".
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