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Botosani - everlasting pages

  • People for an eternity
  • ALEXANDRU GRAUR
  • ISRAIL BERCOVICI
  • BARBU LAZAREANU (Avram Lazarovici)
  • SOLOMON SANIELEVICI
  • SIMION SANIELEVICI
  • HENRIC SANIELEVICI
  • CONSTANTIN GRAUR
  • DUMITRU HANCU
  • MARCEL BLECHER
  • SLOMO LEIBOVICI-LAIS
  • SHAUL CARMEL
  • MARIANA JUSTER
  • MARCU CAJAL
  • NILU ARONOVICI
  • Dr. EMIL TAUBER
  • Dr. ADRIAN VEREA (1876-1944)
  • ALICE SARAGEA
  • MIRON BERG (Grunberg Miron, b. Botosani, 1921-1943)
  • SALOMON SEGALL
  • ENRIC FURTUNA (Heinrich Peckelman, b. Botosani 1881 - d. Sao Paolo, Brasil)
  • ROXANA GUTTMAN
  • ZIGU ORNEA
  • ANDREI BACALU
  • AVRAHAM FELLER
  • NICU HORODNICEANU
  • AKIVA CHITU SOMER
  • I. AVIAN
  • VICTOR RUSU
  • AUREL MARCULESCU (Aron Marcovici, 1900-1947)
  • LUCIEN GOLDMANN (1913-1970, Paris)
  • MARCU SCHERMAN
  • GUSTAV SEGAL (b. 1902, in Botosani)
  • SOCIETIES, ASSOCIATIONS
  • SYNAGOGUES, RABBIS, CEMETERIES
  • SCHOOLS, SCHOOL TEACHERS, MELAMEDS, PROFESSORS
  • PRESIDENTS
  • HOSPITALS, DOCTORS
  • PRINTING HOUSES, NEWSPAPERS, JOURNALISTS, MUSICIANS, WRITERS

    People for an eternity

    From Botosani - to Israeli horizons… but lasting, through Talent and written Word, in their country: their Romanian mother tongue…

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    ALEXANDRU GRAUR

    Respected figure of the Romanian linguistics, he was born in 1900, in Botosani. He dies in 1988. He graduated Faculty of Letters and Philosophy in Bucharest, with a license in classical philology and Romanian language; 1924-1929, in Paris, he obtains a diploma from Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes and his doctorate in Sorbone. Returned to Bucharest, he becomes professor and, in parallel, contributes with studies in various magazines. He established and directed (1941-1944) the private Jewish Lyceum. In 1946, he became a university professor. In 1955, he is titular member of the Academy; between 1954-1956 - dean of the Faculty of Philology; 1955-1974 - director of the Publishing House of the Academy; 1958-1988 - president of the Classical Studies Society etc. A wide bibliography including studies of classical philology and etymology: "Note etimologice", "Etimologii romanesti", "Evolutia limbii romane", "Studii de lingvistica generala", "Mic tratat de ortografie", "Capcanele limbii romane" etc. In "Revista Cultului Mozaic", he had a heading on linguistic themes, signaling the similarities between words in different languages.

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    ISRAIL BERCOVICI

    He was born in Botosani, in 1921, journalist, Yiddish-language translator, and passionate promoter of the Jewish cultural values. He is the author of the volume "O suta de ani de teatru idis din Romania". He was literary secretary of T.E.S., Bucharest.

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    BARBU LAZAREANU (Avram Lazarovici)

    Historiographer, folklorist, journalist and philologist, he was born in Botosani, in 1881; he died in 1957, in Bucharest. "He loves the Romanian writings, that he knows profoundly, reading it with passion" (T. Crudu, 1932). Respected researcher of the Romanian spiritual life, and not only that. Devotion, passion, competence. Between 1919-1930, he taught literary history, folk and linguistic at the Popular University "Uniunea Evreilor Romani" (Romanian Jews Union) During the Second World War, he organizes protests in temples and synagogues against fascism. In 1907, he was expelled. He returns in the country in 1912, and he starts over again with his activity. He was member of the Romanian Academy, and director of the Library of the Romanian Academy. He created the collection "Cu privire la…" in which he wrote memorable pages about Eminescu, Creanga, Hasdeu etc. He contributed with "Viitorul social", "Adevarul literar si artistic", "Curierul Israelit", "Adam", "Lumea Evree" etc.

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    SOLOMON SANIELEVICI

    Painter, portrait and landscape painter, wood engravings, he was born in Botosani, in 1878. He died in 1917, in the war of completion, a fact remembered by N. Iorga in "Razboiul nostru in note zilnice". In 1916, he had an exhibition with designs and engravings, under the auspices of "Libertatea" circle: landscapes "drown" in sun, and portraits. He studied plastic arts in Germany and France.

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    SIMION SANIELEVICI

    He was a mathematician (b. Botosani, in 1870; d. 1963, in Klangenfurt, Austria). Elementary and secondary classes (1881-1889) in Botosani, he had Nicolae Iorga as a colleague, in his first years of school. University studies: Faculty of Science within Bucharest University; he took specialization classes in Paris. He had an intense didactic activity in the university education.

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    HENRIC SANIELEVICI

    Sociologist, biologist, literary critic and historian, he was born in Botosani, in 1875 (d. 1951). He attended the Faculty of Letters within the Bucharest University. In 1900, he was first-editor at "Noua Revista Romana", leaded by Professor Radulescu-Motru. He founded, in Galati, in 1905, with Const. Graur and Mihai Pastia, the "Curentul nou" magazine. He made his debut with the volume "Incercari critice". In "Viata Romaneasca" he has published biological and sociological researches, and critical studies. Works: "Incercari critice" (1903); "Opinia publica europeana si chestiunea evree in Romania" (1901); "Icoane fugare" (1920); "Noi studii critice" (1920); "La vie de mamiferes et des hommes fossiles" (1926); "Cercetari critice si filosofice" (1928); "Literatura si stiinta" (1930) etc. With W. Mayerczik, he translated, in 1904, "Sarmanul Dionis".

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    CONSTANTIN GRAUR

    He was one of the leading publicists: "…a thinker, a writer, a fighter…" (B. Branisteanu). He was born in Botosani, in 1880 (d. 1940). He dedicated his life to journalism. He was a "Western-style" journalist. He wrote articles about political and social issues. Works: "Manasse", critical notes, "Libertatea presei", "Din istoria socialismului roman" (1912), "Cativa insi" - portraits etc. "Const. Graur is the definition of the true intellectual" (Tudor Arghezi).

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    DUMITRU HANCU

    He was born in Botosani, where he attended the lyceum. University studies - Bucharest University (philology) - he would complete his studies in Bonn, Heidelberg and Vienna. After contributing with specialized articles, he published the volumes "Henrich Heine" (1956), "Thomas Mann in Romania" etc. He was deputy director of the Center for the Study of Jews History in Romania.

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    MARCEL BLECHER

    He was a writer and a poet with an ailing sensitivity (b. 1909 in Botosani - d. 1938, in Roman). He had to break off his studies in Paris, because of his illness, and he was placed in a sanatorium, in Berck (Switzerland). His works are autobiographical. A first lyrics volume, "Corp transparent" (1934), and his last volume, published due to Sasa Pana, "Vizuina luminata", "a sanatorium journal", close up his experiences, and a certain similarity has been underlined between his writings and Kafka's. "Intamplari din irealitatea imediata" brings us in the daily life of this young man with an excessive sensitivity, "bed-ridden" on account of a terrifying illness. "Inimi cicatrizate" - a novel in which we discover for the first time the beginning of his illness (Pot's disease, affecting his spine), that it will kill him too soon. His body would "break… as a broken tree, as a clew". "… A unique writer… a remarkable stylist… and through the author's sense of humor with which he tried to overcome the tragic part of his existence" (Camil Baltazar). "Blecher is not alienated of Judaism, on the contrary, not just his collaborations… prove… a vibrant and authentic Judaic personality…" (Ury Benador).

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    SLOMO LEIBOVICI-LAIS

    "Not even a single settlement has been built without sacrifices". He was born in Botosani. He took his license and his doctorate in history sciences. Zionist activist, leader of youth movement "B'nei Akiva", he was interested in the Romanian Jews history and more. He made Alia in 1950. He worked with the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He was president of the World Cultural Association for the Romanian Jews (A.C.M.E.O.R.). He published an important number of works. In Tel Aviv, he published "Sabat - Cununa creatiei" (texts from the Bible), Hassidic legends, literature, art; "Reflectii despre Judaism", "Lexicon" etc.

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    SHAUL CARMEL

    "If am I a poet, a prose writer, a journalist or all in one? I think that all in one but, first of all, a poet". A true perfectionist, his poetry - included in volumes - was awarded numerous prizes. He was born, in 1937, in Botosani County (Stefanesti). He attended the primary and secondary school in Botosani. He took part at the "Mihai Eminescu" literary circle in Botosani. He made his literary debut in 1953; and the editorial one - 1956. He emigrated in Israel, in 1965, "and became one of the key-figures of the literary movement in Tel Aviv" (Al. Mirodan). He is vice-president of Writers Union and secretary of the Association for the Romanian-language Israeli Writers. He published the following volumes: "Raze de soare", "Jurnal de front", "Florile nisipului", "Cu mana pe inima", "Tarziu", "Poezii de nerostit", "Fuga din rai", "Esti", "Dor de dor" etc. His works have been translated in English, Hungarian, Yiddish, Fleming, German and Serb.

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    MARIANA JUSTER

    "I wanted to love you, my town,/ The town of the youth without flights,/ In which many longings have died on me/ and, with them, I often died myself" (I wanted) She was a renowned and respected prose writer, preoccupied with comprising in her works "the Jewish life, the traditions and customs from his hometown". She was born in 1932, in Botosani County (Frumusica). She attended the elementary and secondary school in Botosani. She was member of the "M. Eminescu" literary circle in Botosani. She graduated the Faculty of Philology in Bucharest - department of Romanian language and literature. She made Alia in 1960. With her husband, the poet Solo Juster, she started, in Tel Aviv, "Punct" literary circle and a mini-magazine with the same name. She received numerous prizes.

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    MARCU CAJAL

    Medic, university professor, he was born in Botosani county. He graduated the Faculty of Medicine, with a doctorate thesis with the theme "Contributii la tratamentul sifilisului hereditar prin arseno-benzol". He was awarded with the title of docent in infantile therapy. He was decorated as active participant in 1913 campaign, in Bulgaria, and in the Great War. He was member of some scientific societies inside and outside the country. He leaded an institute for "children strengthening" (1933-1937). Works: "Cartea mamelor"; "Patologie si terapie infantila" (with M. Manicatide) etc.

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    NILU ARONOVICI

    He was born in 1930, in Botosani. He attended, in Iasi, the Jewish lyceum. He graduated the Institute of Agronomy in Bucharest and the Faculty of Horticulture. He is author of numerous specialized articles. From 1996, he is the president of the Department for Social and Medical Assistance in F.C.E.R.: "I wish that our assisted enjoy their lives".

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    Dr. ADRIAN VEREA (1876-1944)

    "No, the life is not a water that runs at random…" (From the dramatic poem "Apollonius…") He was medic, poet, playwright, painter, musician, and respected journalist. "Dr. Verea is a man of silk. Not in his spirit, or in his physical presence you will find a hard edge, an asymmetry…" (F. Aderca). He contributed to "Lumea Israelita", "Puntea de fildes", "Adam", "Lumea Evree" etc. Poems: the volume "Icoanele"; playwritings: "Dupa moartea lui Manasse" (a three-act play); a follow-up to the drama "Manasse", by Ronetti-Roman; "Sa nu-ti faci niciodata idoli" (a three-act lyrical play) etc.

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    Dr. EMIL TAUBER

    A remarkable medical personality in Romania, a model figure, interested in the Jewish community life (s. R.E., no. 815). He was a very good man and a very good Jew, and the words of Goethe suit him, that "oldness makes true the promises of youth". He was an active member in the leadership of the Botosani community (1920-1932) and president of the community between 1932-1942. He took care of organizing medical assistance, of restoring the Botosani Jewish Hospital ("Hekdos"), "one of the oldest hospitals in the kingdom". Here, the ill people received free medical assistance no matter of their religion or social status. In 1923, he created a policlinic, in Botosani poorest district. From his initiative, a Jewish dispensary was created, in 1930, offering free of charge consultations for the entire town population. In 1935, with his efforts, has been built a "Section for social assistance, for helping poor Jews and for eradicating begging". In 1920, he restored and re-equipped the "Or Haim" shelter for old people (founded in 1908), and he became the president of this institution in 1940. He established an O.R.T. vocational school, a school for nurses, school canteens for poor children, an emergency medical cabinet. In 1956, Dr. Emil Tauber retired from the medical activity, but remained involved in the community, social and professional activity.

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    ALICE SARAGEA

    Emil Tauber was the father of Dr. Alice Saragea - eminent scientist with a long activity at the "Cantacuzino" Institute; with works in which she "contributed to the eradication, in 1968, of clinical diphtheria in our country… and to the creation of the first international Center of great importance in the study of diphtheria, center guided by the World Health Organization" (professor, dr. Gheorghe Bratescu); she was the chief of the laboratory within the center "Amalia si Sef Rabin dr. Moses Rosen"; with her husband, professor dr. Marcel Saragea, she passed by the ideas of her parents.

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    MIRON BERG (Grunberg Miron, b. Botosani, 1921-1943)

    He lived his life under the sword of death that made him want to know more about philosophers (Plato, Spinoza, Hegel, Freud), and about foreign languages (Greek, Latin, French, German). Sent, in 1941, in force labor camps, he works in the Paladia quarry (Hotin, Basarabia). He really had, as Gala Galaction said it, "a grain of genius".

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    SALOMON SEGALL

    Sensitive poet and publicist, he translates in Yiddish-language the poems of Eminescu, Arghezi, Macedonski, Goga, Alecsandri, Anghel, and Cerna, etc. He was born in Botosani County (Stefanesti), in 1864. From him, we have the volume, very appreciated by I. Torontiu, "Poeti romani tradusi in idis".

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    ENRIC FURTUNA (Heinrich Peckelman, b. Botosani 1881 - d. Sao Paolo, Brasil)

    "I quivered at the trembling of life", a life like a "physical ghetto" (Bucur Marian). He studied medicine in Iasi. He contributes with lyrics and prose to: "Lumea", "Opinia", "Convorbiri critice", "Lumea Evree", "Adam". Volumes: "De pe stanca", "Meletie jidovul"; playwritings: "Rechizitie" - performed at the Iasi National Theater (1921); "Intre transee" etc. He translated Bialik, Groper, Itic Manger, Goethe etc. The poem "Abisag" is inspired from the Bible. His poems - dedicated to Destiny, Poetry and Poets - comprise the torment of the poet ("Poemele resemnarii"), dream and reality: "Forever, pilgrim on bad roads/ Tired and hungry, I dream of a dream…/ Rebellious thoughts take me on their wings, / But the body falls: an outlaw".

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    ROXANA GUTTMAN

    Until her arrival to T.E.S., Roxana Guttman was "on probation" with the "Mihai Eminescu" theater in Botosani. She remarked herself, among other roles, in "Nevasta evreica" - within Brecht's cycle, "Teroarea si mizeriile celui de-al treilea Reich" - a monologue rewarded at the Gala for the dramatic roles in Bacau. She received the Great Prize for the role of Silvio (transvestite) in the Goldoni's play, "Sluga la doi stapani".

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    ZIGU ORNEA

    He was editor, historian, literary critic and respected chronicler, with special works regarding "the streams of ideas in the Romanian culture". He was born, in 1926, in Frumusani. He attended the Jewish lyceum in Botosani, followed by the Faculty of Philosophy in Bucharest: "I found healing in study". He made his debut as a publicist, in 1956; editorial - in 1969, with the volume "Junimismul". Monographs: "Sem\n\torismul", "Junimea si Junimismul", "Poporanismul", "Taranismul", "Curentul cultural de la «Contemporanul»" etc. He directed the "Minerva" publishing house and today he is director of "Hasefer" publishing house, where testimonies about the Jews' presence in the culture of the country are being published.

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    ANDREI BACALU

    He was the producer of the "scientific programs for the Romanian television, of great popularity in the decades 7 and 8" (Al. Mirodan). He was born in Botosani, he settled in Israel. Works: "America - transmisie directa" (features); "Zboruri cosmice". He translated "Civilizatiile extraterestre", by Isaac Asimov.

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    AVRAHAM FELLER

    Publicist, editor, active Zionist (b. Botosani 1893 - d. 1986, Tel Aviv). "The Judaism doesn't mean just religion, tradition, ethical principles or a certain way of thinking. The Judaism is a sum of all of these values… including all the forms of the Jewish living". In 1908, he established, in Botosani, the "Dorshei Zion" organization. Because of his great admiration towards A. L. Zissu, he publish in the "Mantuirea" newspaper; editor with "Hasmonaea", "Adam", "Raspantia" etc. He contributed with "Enciclopedia Judaica" with the article "Evreii in literatura romana". He had a "small printing and publishing house, «Slova»", between 1944-1951, where the peaks of the Romanian culture and art used to meet. "The magnetism of «Slova» was unique in this pretty divided Jewish world in Bucharest" (Al. Mirodan).

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    NICU HORODNICEANU

    He was born in 1929, in Botosani. In 1951, he graduated the Polytechnic Institute in Bucharest. In 1972, he made Alia. Interested in theater history and theory, he wrote valuable playwritings: "Ipoteze", "Constiinta mecanica" etc. He is member of the Writers Union in Israel and of Association for the Romanian-language Israeli Writers.

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    AKIVA CHITU SOMER

    Gifted journalist, he was deputy director of "M. Eminescu" Theater and president of the Botosani community (1988). Today, he is in Israel, living in Holon. He was preoccupied with collecting the articles published by Manascu Cotter and Manes Lieb in "Revista Cultului Mozaic", and he included them in the volume "6 secole de convietuire. Din istoria comunitatilor evreiesti din Romania".

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    I. AVIAN

    He settled in 1974, in Israel. Former editor with "Urzica" - "…he is the prototype of the professional humorist…" (Al. Mirodan).

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    VICTOR RUSU

    "The history is life, the history is people". Former editor-in-chief of "Revista Cultului Mozaic", "he officiated at this altar of Judaic culture in Romania" (Moses Rosen). The volumes "Alef-Beth" and, recently, "Itic si lumea lui" ("Hasefer" publishing house) present the magic of the Moldavian towns. He settled in Holon (Israel).

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    AUREL MARCULESCU (Aron Marcovici, 1900-1947)

    Engraver, he was born in Piatra Neamt. Settled in Botosani, he published, with Scarlat Callimachi, the "Clopotul" newspaper, "tribune for antifascist fight", that he illustrates with his own works. He had exhibitions in various pavilions in Bucharest, in "Sala Dalles" etc. He died in Botosani. During the war, he was deported.

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    LUCIEN GOLDMANN (1913-1970, Paris)

    Sociologist, philosopher, he was born in Botosani. Studies: "A. T. Laurian" lyceum in his hometown; philosophy, law and economic sciences - Bucharest University. In Vienna, "he lives the drama of the Hitlerism invasion", then in Paris. In Switzerland, he passed his examination for a doctor's degree with a work on Kant's philosophy. Works: "Stiintele umane si filosofia", "Pentru o sociologie a romanului" etc. "…an enormous thinking capacity and finesse in the analysis and dissociation" (Miron Constantinescu).

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    MARCU SCHERMAN

    "Restless bee" (I. Pelz), he was born in Botosani (1902). In 1926, he took part in the drama and comedy class of Ion Manolescu - Academy of Dramatic Art. He gives up theater, but he keeps being involved in organizing Yiddish performances and Yiddish-language Conservatory for dramatic art.

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    GUSTAV SEGAL (b. 1902, in Botosani)

    He was an active member of Zionist organizations. He established and directed "Barbu Nemteanu" public library. He translated from Yiddish literature ("Pagini antologice", 1928). He contributed with "Hasmonaea", "Renasterea noastra", "Adam", "Anuarul Sinai", "Curierul Israelit" etc.

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    SOCIETIES, ASSOCIATIONS

  • 1889 - "Ostasul" society (for helping the reservists and the families of the Jewish soldiers)
  • 1889 - "Zwas" charity society for craftsmen (president - Peretz Bernstein)
  • 1892 - "Moldova" has been established, a section of "Asociatia generala a israelitilor pamanteni"
  • 1896 - "Or Hades" society (founder Leon Goldschlader)
  • "Or Tora"
  • 1898 - a Zionist section of "Chowewe Sion" has been established (created by the initiative of Rabbi L. M. Landau). This section published the Zionist brochure "Fur Zion", by Sussmann
  • 1890 - the Congress of students was held, but the Jews were excluded from the reunion. There were anti-Semitic manifestations and some synagogues have been desecrated. At the Congress of Israelite Communities in the country, held in Focsani, in 1905, took place a delegation from Botosani. On the agenda: education, social assistance, and the recognition of every community as juridical person, cult problems
  • in 1907, in Botosani, has been mentioned the "Basel Zion" Zionist society, with 180 members (president - Dr. B. Wolberg)
  • 1908 - in the community, the "Tonchei Oreisu" society has been established
  • 1914-1915 - rapport is being published about "Ceainaria gratuita pentru saraci"
  • "Caritatea" (1909), the patron of the Israelite Hospital
  • "Hevra Kedosa" - for schools, and another one for the cemeteries
  • "Lumina Vietii" ("Or Chaim"), for the maintenance of the asylum for old people - it became "moral and juridical person" - has been established by the decision of the Botosani tribunal, in June 13, 1925
  • "Viitorul" - credits and savings society
  • Ripiceni shareholding society - factory and sugar and alcohol refinery etc -, created in 1921, developed activities here too
  • "Macabi" association, created in 1919 - "it's task was physical education for Jewish youth" (T. Crudu) -, has organized various manifestations: conferences, bees etc.

    Not only the tombstones carry inscriptions from the first half of the 16th century, THE ISRAELI COMMUNITY from BOTOSANI DATES BACK FROM 1540 In order to write those pages of community history, we had under our attention an extensive bibliography for underling - selectively - those dates that mark the beginning of Jewish settlement on those lands, the cradle of M. Eminescu, George Enescu, Nicolae Iorga, Stefan Luchian, Octav Bancila and so many other "peaks" of the Romanian culture.

    Old shabby documents, about the history of the Jewish community in Botosani (considered, by Dr. Iuliu Barasch, in his literary study "Itinerar in Cracovia, Galitia, Bucovina, Moldova si Muntenia" "among the biggest and the most important communities", together with Iasi) that now, unfortunately, has only 125 members. Of real help was "Dictionarul Botosanenilor", by Ionel Bajenaru, non-Jew, who mentioned various personalities very important for this city and maybe - who knows - our accounts will generate the publication of a new volume, completed with data and events from Botosani. After 1780, the prince Alexandru Ipsilanti "offered the Botosani community the privilege of having the status as autonomous corporation" (Contributia evreilor din Romania la cultura si civilizatie). In 1793, the Moldavian prince Mihai Grigore Sutu allowed "their settling".

    The historian Artur Gorovei mentioned, in his "Monografia orasului Botosani", data about the Jews who started to come to the Botosani lands, from 1600. If, in the beginning, they were engaged in the trade with cattle, in time the range of occupations expanded, indicating "an advanced stage of economic development" (Liviu Rotman). In "Analele Academiei Romane", N. Iorga affirmed that here - in the Moldavian lands - came Polish Jews who were trading "Polish cloth" for cattle.

    In 1893, "Statutele epitropiei comunitatii israelite din Botosani" have been published. A valuable document, attesting the presence of Jews from ancient times, is represented by the tombstones inscriptions, engraved with the year 1540; the prove for that is the work "Arhiva documentelor Comunitatii Israelite din Botosani, fondata in anul 1540", published with the money offered by Iosef Freifeld.

    Through successive immigrations from Galitia, through "natural growth of population", the number of Jews rose considerably: in 1832, lived here some 1,477 Jews; in 1930 - some 12,000 and today they are only 125 Jews.

    The Jews' contribution to the social-cultural life will be very important:
    · 1810 - the first names of Efors are being mentioned
    · 1817 - the beginnings of the "Hekdos" hospital
    · 1821 - the Jewish Hospital has been established
    · 1866 - the building that will shelter the School for boys has been erected
    · in 1859 - a delegation (the community president was Hers Sumer) welcomed the prince Al. Ioan Cuza of his entering in Botosani
    · 1890 - A. Wahrman, M. Abramovici, Segal and Spaier have been elected "corresponding members, with vote rights, in the Chamber of Commerce"
    · 1893 - have been published "Statutele Epitropiei Comunitatii Israelite din Botosani"; later, the community is recognize as "moral and juridical person" (president Dr. Emil Tauber)
    · 1936 - Dr. Emil Tauber starts the building of a modern policlinic, that was named after him. "All the economic and spiritual facilities offered to the Jews in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Moldavia and Wallachia, but also in Transylvania and the Romanian Countries represent for the Jews a real refuge between Eastern and Central Europe, that became less welcoming" (Harry Kuller).
    · 1832 - the integration was impossible to control. Now, there were 558 families of craftsmen, with different occupations: jewelers, brass makers, butchers, tailors, hat makers, water carriers. In exclusivity, there were bakers, hat makers, water carriers, bag makers etc.

    On these lands, have been born and became well-known scientists, plastic artists, and writers, spreading the culture, opening new horizons and developing the Jewish culture.
    "The biggest and the most important communities are those from Iasi and Botosani and from the Galati port" (Iuliu Barasch)

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    SYNAGOGUES, RABBIS, CEMETERIES

    There are two synagogues, but there used to be over 70 sacred houses with libraries. In 1861, the Aron Hakodes was established in the "Templul din Targu Vechi" synagogue, considered architecture monument, with an existence of over 150 years. "Templul din Targu Nou" was restored after a fire in 1887; inaugurated in 1889. Avram Iosef Schnitzer, maestro from Odessa, worked for the construction of Aron Hakodes and to the engravings inspired by the Bible. Hevra Kedosa - "the brotherhood of burial", Sacra, in Botosani - from 1740. "The Hevra Kedosa documents are a precious history and artistic source". This "benevolent society of influential people" was involved in the activity of the professional schools, defended the interests of craftsmen, helped the ill people and aided for the burial of the poor etc. From the 18th century, we find old tombstones with Hebrew inscriptions, rich in floral and vegetal motifs, engraved under the influence of Romanian popular art.

  • EFORS, RABBIS: Ichil Hahamu (Efor); Marcu Lipscanu; Lob Mendel Landau - he fought against "More Judaico" swear; Fridman (d. 1933); Moisola; Arab Einah; Ezra Zukerman; Haim Taubes - he left us works "in domains as Halachia and Hagada" (I. J. Niemirower); Iehuda Leib (cantor); Wahman Moderhai (cantor); A. Noel-Kohn - cantor (he was born at Frumusica, Botosani county, in 1884); he lived in Botosani until 1920, when he was named cantor in Bucharest. In 1906, he published "Ratacitorul evreu" magazine. His dramatic play, "Razbunarea" (1910), is being performed in "Popovici" Theater in Botosani. He was also author of "Der Hazan" brochure (1940). He published Romanian-Jewish calendars.

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    SCHOOLS, SCHOOL TEACHERS, MELAMEDS, PROFESSORS

  • SCHOOLS:
  • In 1861, the plans are ready for the opening of a modern school
  • in 1836, there were some 37 Melamed teachers
  • 1866 - an Israelite-Romanian school for boy has been opened. Hirsch Sommer supported the construction of this school. Hillel Kahane, Hebrew-specialist, encyclopedic, physicist, writer and teacher, director, heads the school, and he was for 30 years director of the "Israelite-Romanian" school. Doctor in pedagogy, in Vienna, "he was one of those people who offered a direction to the Israelite-Romanian school" (Liviu Rotman). I. Niemirower realizes a parallel between Hillel of Misna and this headmaster: "… he tried to perpetuate the spirit of Judaism". He was editor of "Institutorul evreu" magazine, author of the history volume "Notiuni de istorie a israelitilor pentru uzul scolii israelito-romane". After his death, the school will take his name. Reopened, in 1887, with the help of "Alliance Israelite Universalle", with a school library
  • 1893 - has been founded a primary public school for girls, "Or Hadas"
  • 1902 - a school for Jewish adults has been opened, for "all the students, independent of their religion"
  • 1905 - two schools: one for the boys and one for the girls
  • Due to the "Or Tora" society, in 1896, has been founded a school to draw the children in the Orthodox families
  • there was also an institute for young ladies named "Emma Neumann".
  • SCHOOLTEACHERS, MELAMEDS, PROFESSORS:
  • Albrecht Scarlat - he was pedagogue, headmaster. He takes part in battles during the Great War; he dies, in 1916, "hit by enemy bullet"
  • I. M. Moscovici - he was a learned pedagogue, director; he took part in the war of completion. He is decorated with "Virtutea Militara cl. II". He died in 1934
  • Iosef Sessman
  • Nathan Jager
  • Patty R. Leibovici
  • Emma Neumann
  • Dr. Lehrer Saie
  • Lipa Haichis
  • Michael Baraz
  • Segalet Marcu
  • Sin Gavril Elias
  • Marcus Froim - university teacher
  • Leon Rosenfeld, he was born in Botosani, in 1899. He took his law license in Bucharest. He was Zion activist. He was headmaster of "Lumina" Israelite School, and of "Israelite-Romanian Primary School", and a Romanian-language teacher. In 1930, he settles in Bucharest
  • Iacob Haller - he was a biology professor (b. 1914 - d. 1996), he dedicated his life to the culture. He was deported, in Transdniester, between 1941-1943. From 1948, he settled in Botosani; he was professor at the biology department of the "A. T. Laurian" lyceum; from 1972, he also worked part-time at the "Nicolae Iorga" Popular University, where, for 25 years, he occupied the position of dean.
  • Isaia Vardi - he was professor and headmaster at the "Cultura" lyceum, he was born in 1907. He edited a Hebrew-language textbook and a volume entitled "Istorie a comertului evreiesc" (co-author) and "Istoricul scolilor evreiesti in Tarile Romane". He had an active contribution in the Zionist education of the youth.

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    PRESIDENTS


    · 1859 - Hers Sumer would welcome the prince Al. I. Cuza when the last one entered Botosani
    · 1871 - I. N. Kestenbaum, Lazar Goldhamer, Iacob Spanier, Osias Segall
    · After the Great War, the community starts organizing: a democratic-based statute has been drown, and the community was re-organized under the name "Eforia Comunitatii"
    · 1937 - the community is recognized as moral and juridical person
    · subsidies and aids have been distributed: a shelter for old people, "I. Swass" canteen, Talmud Torah, School Canteen, literary circle for students, kindergarten etc.
    · Dr. Lazar Goldhamer
    · Dr. Emil Tauber
    · In present days - David Iosef; accountant and economist - Hermina Milstein.

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    HOSPITALS, DOCTORS

  • HOSPITALS:
    · 1817 - starting years of "Hekodesch", one of the oldest hospitals in the Kingdom
    · 1821 - the Jewish Hospital has been established, through princely charter of Scarlat Callimachi and Grigore Sutu. In 1906, is reopened, after being modernized, due to Avram Wechsler. In 1934 - re-organized, with obstetric and gynecology sections. Is also has a pharmacy
    · 1936 - Dr. Emil Tauber (1874-1960), community president (1932-1942), he starts the construction of a modern policlinic - open to everybody in the population. His name has been carved in the history of Israelite community in Botosani
  • DOCTORS:
    · Schetz
    · Peterson
    · Moritz Kernbach
    · Lohman
    · Iurim
    · Clement Blumenfeld
    · Cohanescu
    · David Metzis
    · Rapapport
    · Iosif Politzer
    · Bortkievici
    · Lazar Goldhamer
    · Iacob Stenberg
    · Salzberger
    · Iosef Cohn
    · Francisc Isak
    · Solomon David (pharmacist)
    · I. Schaiovici
    · I. Lazarovici
    · Miron Sigalea (1866-1930)
    · G. Graur, doctor and publicist
    · I. Olivenbaum
    · Cohas, settled in Paris
    · Franz Isac (Isaak, 1827-1907), from Lemberg, until 1865, when, settled in Botosani, he leads the local town hospital. He was naturalized in 1886. He will take care of Eminescu
    · Cahana Solomon (1867-1943) - doctor in Botosani county
    · Emil Max (1843-1894) - he published: "Arta obstetricala" etc
    · Herman Fischgold (1899-1983) - radiologist, he left for France
    · Clement Blumenfeld - doctor, journalist, he was born in Botosani, in 1876. He graduated the Faculty of Medicine in Iasi. He made his debut in journalism in Iasi. His name is being mentioned in "Cugetarea" Encyclopedia (L. Predescu); in "Bibliografia Romaneasca Moderna" (1831-1918)
    · Andrei Bacalu (Adolf Bacal).

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    PRINTING HOUSES, NEWSPAPERS, JOURNALISTS, MUSICIANS, WRITERS

  • PRINTING HOUSES:
    · "Concurenta" (1880) - Clara Marcovici owns the printing house. The mention "Regardless of nationality" is worth mentioning
    · "Progresul" (1880), owned by Bernhard Seidman
    · "Viitorul" (1896), owned by Blaunstein
    · "Tipografia Goldschlager", established in 1885, functioning until 1899
    · "Reinvierea" - owned by Segall and Marcu - has been published textbooks, schoolbooks, prayer books (remade by Moses Gaster)
    · "Bernhard Seidman"
    · "M. J. Schwefelberg" - printing house and holography
    · in 1885 - in Yiddish and Hebrew - calendars and books have been published, until 1940
  • NEWSPAPERS:
    · "Civilizatiunea" (1868 - editor M. Weissman)
    · "Haor" (1882), in Ivrit - "Intends to make «light» on the poor people"
    · "Der idise wahter" (1884)
    · "Die naie tait" (1885)
    · "Or Hadas" - mobilizes the Jews for defending their country
    · "National" (1886), in Yiddish - political, literary and economic publication
    · "Revista Masonica" (1887)
    · "Adio" - publication of the "pedestrian" immigrants (1890)
    · "Dorul" (1900)
    · "Herzl", "Pedestri" (1900), "Infratirea" (1900) - Romanian-language publications for the immigrants
    · "Emigrantul" - Yiddish and German-language publication
    · "Evreul ratacitor" (1907)
    · "Menorah" (1920)
    · "Calendar Israelit" (1912-1913, 1914-1915 - editor H. Grunspan)
    · "Buletinul Asociatiei Generale a Corpului Didactic din Romania" (1912) - five editions only
    · "Creditul marunt" (1928)
    · "Foaia Cooperatiei" (1929)
    · "Hazair" (1925)
    · "Institutorul Evreu" (1906-1909)
  • JOURNALISTS:
    · B. Labin
    · Arthur Bergman-Munte
    · Constantin Graur
    · Clement Blumenfeld (b. 1876)
    · Albert Friedman
    · I. Fior (1856-1898) - editor with "Vocea Botosanilor"
    · Arthur Bergman-Munte - profound chronicler of the dramaturgy of those times (b. 1895). From 1920, he is journalist with "Luptatorul" and "Aurora", Bucharest. He worked for the Radio too. He published the sonnets volume entitled "Franturi de suflet"
    · Saniel Grossman (1872-1938) - journalist respected by Mortun, fine translator from the universal literature. He became interested in Zionism after the Dreyfuss' drama - "The Zionism came to shake our people from its secular lethargy". He published in "Lumea Israelita", "Egalitatea", "Cronica Israelita", "Mantuirea", "Adam", "Stiri din lumea evreiasca" etc.
    · Iacob Rosenthal was born, in 1883, in Botosani. C. Mille would appreciate him enormously. In 1913, he leaves for "the battlefields of the Balkan wars, as special correspondent newsman". In 1928, Titulescu suggested that he should become technical adviser within the Romanian Legation in Washington and press secretary in New York, and that happened, for 12 years
    · S. Pastorescu (Simon Schafferman) - he was born in Botosani, in 1903. He made an early debut, with "light verses" in "Revista copiilor si tinerimii", "Adevarul literar si artistic", "Universul literar" etc. becoming correspondent for big newspapers in the Capital. He contributed to "Adam", "Gazeta evreiasca", "Renasterea noastra" with prose and lyrics
    · Ticu I. Esanu (he was born in Botosani, in 1893) - he published musical literature in his publishing house and numerous works from foreign writers. He was designated member of the Romanian Composers Society. He edited the bulletin "Vestitorul", with literary and musical novelties, which have been published in "Ticu I. Esanu" publishing house established, in 1922, in Bucharest. "The «Ticu I. Esanu» publishing house represents the first serious attempt to create a musical publishing house in our country"
    · "An editorial curiosity represented Ioseph Ishil. He was born in Botosani, in 1888, and he was influenced by the moment of «on-foot immigrations»…" (Al. Mirodan)
    · Henri Gad (Henri Fischman, 1895-1923, Paris) - journalist, vanguard film director, he was born in Botosani. He made his debut in 1913, in "Rampa". Sasa Pana has impressive memories about him.
    · Horia Carp, born in 1869, in Harlau, he made his lyceum studies in Botosani. In his articles, he spoke about this town. He was U.E.R. senator, between 1927-1928 and 1929-1931 etc.
  • MUSICIANS:
    · M. Nadolovici - tenor, born in Botosani county (Ionaseni commune). In Bucharest, he studied medicine. In Vienna, he finished Conservatory studies and made his debut in the Vienna Opera, in "Aida"
    · Iacov I. Diamant - dulcimer player and actor (1903) etc.
  • WRITERS:
    · Israel Vecsler - he published, between 1879-1889, historical short stories
    · Iacob Psantir (b. 1820, in Botosani - d. 1900), he was the "first chronicler for the Jews living in Romania". Books in Yiddish and Hebrew-language: "Cronica Tarilor Romanesti"; "Intamplari si povestiri din Romania"; "Cartea amintirilor" (memoirs volume)
    · David Isaiah Silberbuch
    · Zevi Lazar Teller
    · Israel Teller
    · scholar Adolf Wahrmann
    · Nutu Spodheim
    · Idel Vaidenfeld - poet and prose writer etc.

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